of St. Vincent Pallotti
(20th January 2013)
Fr. Francesco Todisco, SAC
January 20th 2013 will mark the 50th anniversary of the canonization of St. Vincent Pallotti by Blessed John XXIII, and January 22nd the 63rd anniversary of his beatification which was celebrated during the pontificate of Pius XII. They were two milestones and the canonization in particular crowned with glory the earthly life of St. Vincent and entrusted his model of holiness and his charism to priests, brothers, sisters, lay persons, to the Church and to history.
Such jubilee anniversaries of Founders and of their foundations have always been, and continue to be, occasions for reappraisal and for advancement. For us it is an occasion for a re-examination of our internal life, our fidelity to the original and initial directions and of our apostolic options – which in fact is one of the objectives of this XX General Assembly – and of promotion and advancement of the person of St. Vincent Pallotti, of his foundation and of his spirituality. All such anniversaries involve initiatives which include recollection or remembrance, a serious and attentive analysis of the present and include a challenge for the future which is to ensure that the life, the foundation and spirituality of the Founder are still up-to-date (relevant), that they speak to the present time in a way that is understood and that they be means to holiness for many persons. The future is important, but, like a plant which needs deep roots in order to continue to grow and to reach up towards the sky, so too, we members of the SAC cannot not know and not recall the “roots” of our past. They are the cornerstones that will continue to sustain and extend our foundation.
In spite of the great fame of Fr. Vincent’s holiness and the miracles attributed to him eighty years passed after his death before his heroic virtues were recognized and one hundred before he was beatified.
Cardinal Lambruschini, Secretary of State of Gregory XVI and a penitent of Fr. Vincent, in his disposition declared that he was utterly convinced of Pallotti’s holiness, however he also cited a minority view which he considered to be paltry: “As regards penance Fr. Pallotti was supreme, but as far as the rest is concerned the cause may encounter some difficulties”. Without intending it he was “a prophet of bad luck” for his confessor!
Some of the reasons for this tardiness were certainly due to important and serious historical events: the Church’s gradual and progressive loss of the Papal States, the birth of the Kingdom of Italy, the interruption of the First Vatican Council by the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War and, on September 20th 1870, after the French contingent had been called back to its homeland, the conquest and annexation of Rome by the Italian troops, the new relationship between faith and politics and faith and morals, and the resulting “Roman question” and then the First World War.
3. THE COURSE OF THE VARIOUS PROCESSES
Fr. Vincent’s fame of holiness and the numerous miracles attributed to him motivated his companions to request the Cardinal Vicar on December 18th 1850 to initiate the Informative or Ordinary Process for the beatification of their Founder. With the power of attorney of the Rector General Fr. Francesco Vaccari, Frs. Carlo Orlandi and Efisio Marghinotti, were appointed postulators, the latter resigned from the post in 1861.
On February 18th 1852 the Cardinal Vicar Costantino Patrizi authorized the opening of the process. Twenty-three witnesses were summoned to speak of Fr. Vincent’s life, his virtues and the fame of his holiness; they were all very valuable because of their personal qualities and first-hand knowledge: Cardinal Luigi Lambruschini, Cardinal Morichini, a collaborator of Pallotti who was later in charge of the night schools, the faithful Giacomo Salvati, a layman, however, his input was not decisive as his memory had become very unreliable, Fr. Vincent’s brother Giovanni and his cousin Francesco, who provided a wealth of information on Pallotti’s childhood and youth, and Elisabetta Sanna, today a Venerable Servant of God, who because of her holiness and the familiar relationship she had had with him stood out among all the other witnesses. Only three Pallottines were called to make depositions: Br. Angelo Palombi and the priests Raffaele Melia and Francesco Vaccari, who needed numerous sessions to communicate all they knew of Fr. Vincent and their experiences with him.
Meanwhile on April 9th 1854, just two years after the beginning of the Ordinary Process, Pius IX “…deigned to declare that the above-mentioned Congregation of the Catholic Apostolate – and therefore the entire Pallottine foundation – was to call itself “Pia Società delle Missioni”, the Pious Society of the Missions, while confirming all the indulgences, graces and privileges…, legacies (bequests) and pious donations made to it” .
Following the death of Cardinal Lambruschini who had strenuously defended the title “Catholic Apostolate”, the Congregation of Propaganda Fide returned to the attack. It had never been able to accept that ‘Catholic Apostolate’ not be a title exclusive to the hierarchy! After the death of Fr. Vincent his companions had asked that the official name of the Pallottine foundation be definitively decided, they did this knowing that the Founder himself had sent a similar request to the Congregation of Propaganda Fide, in which “…having expounded … on the reasons… for wishing (you) to grant this title to the Pious Society” [that it, Catholic Apostolate], he concluded in this manner: “This notwithstanding, the Pious Society venerating in the will of the Supreme Pontiff the very will of God himself, (requests that you) consent readily to the change of title, which will be conferred on it by your Reverent Eminence”. However this time Pius IX had ceded, either in weakness or because of a lack of understanding and therefore was not convinced of Pallotti’s apostolic vision. After the initial enthusiasm of 1835 came fifteen years of uncertainty and now the mortal blow! The Pallottine Congregation was to conform to the style of that time, and like many others at that time be missionary.
“The Congregation will develop …I am certain of it”, Pallotti had said to his companions who surrounded him on his death bed. The reality seemed to belie this promise and became a very difficult trial for them. They hoped for and awaited better times for the Congregation and the Society.
I have always admired their courage and perseverance which I believe can only be explained by the strong conviction they had which came from having met and lived with a saint.
The name change was reflected first of all in St. Vincent’s foundation. It meant that the Roman Church did not share, and therefore officially rejected, that for which Pallotti had lived and suffered, his apostolic vision, his manner of being and of living as Church: it meant that the Roman Church did not consider the inspiration of January 9th 1835 to be true, or else they scaled it down: it was felt to be alien, disquieting, a bearer of disturbance and disorder, at least in a pastoral context, in her midst, a usurper of a title and of a condition that was reserved only to the hierarchy.
The change also reflected on his person.
Orlandi wrote to Melia with his opinion on the draft copy of the life of the Founder which he had composed: “…apart from drawing it up and conducting it with greater sobriety, especially in speaking of the Institute [Congregation or Society?], avoid all that which is not well attested or which appears exaggerated or implausible or it may encounter contradiction or opposition with [the Congregation of] the Rites, and which would delay or prejudice the Cause [of Beatification]”.
Pallotti’s holiness was no longer evident. He was blamed for excessive corporal penance, for weakness and non-compliance in his office of Rector of the Church of Spirito Santo dei Napoletani, for liturgical transgressions such as the use of gloves in the winter months up until the offertory and after communion, for repeating four times “Domine non sum dignus” before communion, for keeping the host and chalice elevated at the consecration for longer than he should, for seeking the inheritance of the sick and the dying, imprudence in the account of a dialogue with the priest Abbo who was beheaded for homicide and the sexual abuse of his nephew and above all for allegedly falling asleep during confessions and for a suspected lack of respect for Pius IX.
The Ordinary Process was closed on October 2nd 1860. On May 27th 1886 and February 11th 1895 a first and second collections of writings by Pallotti were respectively approved following the overcoming of not a few difficulties with some pages of the “Lumi”.
On January 13th 1887 Leo XIII signed the decree on the constitution of the Commission for the introduction of the Cause in the Congregation of Rites and conferred the title of Venerable upon the Servant of God.
The Processo super cultu numquam exhibito…followed, in other words that no public or ecclesial worship of the Servant of God existed or had ever existed, and the Processo super fama sanctitatis; …, which investigated the existence among the people of God of Fr. Vincent’s fame of holiness and miracles, both in his lifetime and after his death. The first process lasted ten years and closed on May 5th 1897, it was approved by a decree of November 30th of that same year which confirmed the inexistence of all veneration or worship. The second one began on June 3rd 1898, closed on January 14th1901 and a decree was published on May 29th 1902.
In the meantime, at the request of the Pallottine confreres, to ensure that important testimonies not be overlooked, Leo XIII authorized with a decree of May 2nd 1897 the ‘Processo Apostolico’, which commenced on May 7th 1897 .
Twenty two witnesses were summoned to testify in seventy six sessions, the last of which took place on February 26th 1908.
On July 12th 1910 a special Congregation judged that it was valid and recognized it officially with a decree on July 13th that same year. Meanwhile on September 14th 1898 the first miracle which was to be presented for the beatification occurred, the instantaneous healing of the child Alessandro Lutri of grave cerebral concussion due to the rupture of the base of his skull.
4. THE FIRST IDENTIFICATION OF THE BODY
On March 22nd 1906 at 10 o’clock the first exhumation of Fr. Vincent’s body took place.
When two paving stones were lifted the tarred niche in which it had been laid appeared. The zinc coffin, with the seals affixed to it by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi, Cardinal Vicar at the time of his burial were still intact, it was carried by the students of the Society into a room in the house of SS. Salvatore in Onda, between two rows of confreres with lighted candles in their hands, and was placed on a table covered with a white linen cloth. They noticed on the coffin a blackened lead plaque with an engraved inscription of which there was no mention in the Servant of God’s burial document.
When the two coffins were opened, one after the other, the body of the Servant of God appeared. It was intact, clothed in priestly vestments, and with socks and shoes on the feet. In the hands a rosary beads that been entwined in the shape of a cross and resting on the chest was a cross corroded by rust. All the clothing was sudden with humidity.
When the veil covering the head was removed the face appeared, just like the images of him. Under the biretta the hair was still stuck to the head.
On the experts’ advice the corpse was stripped on its clothes and left to dry out until the following April 10th. Then on April 10th the body was wrapped only in a linen shroud sprinkled with naphthalene and, in the same wooden coffin, was laid on a padded mattress of white silk on which, worked in gold, were the words: “The Pallottine Sisters, April 1st 1906”. A cushion embroidered in silver thread was placed under the head; on the chest the stole was arranged in the form of a cross and a crucifix was hung on a silver-plated cord around the neck.
The coffin, sealed and encased in another made of zinc, was not laid beneath the paving but placed in a new niche, hollowed out in the wall of the lateral nave, to the left on entering the church and the niche was closed by a new marble plaque with a new inscription.
5. THE HEROIC NATURE OF THE VIRTUES ON EXAMINATION BY THE CONGREGATION OF RITES
On July 12th 1910 after hearing the report of the Promoter of the Holy Faith, the Congregation of Rites declared that all the preceding Processes were valid and that the procedure and the examination of the texts and the depositions were correct, with the exclusion, however, of the Deposizioni Stragiudiziali [depositions off the legal record].
The more difficult phase of the cause for the beatification of Fr. Vincent then began: the examination of the heroicity of his virtues by the Consultors of the Congregation of Rites with the Animadversiones or objections of the Promoter of the Faith and the Responsiones or replies of the defender.
The Congregation held four meetings: the first, the Antipreparatoria phase, on August 9th 1921; the Preparatoria phase on October 26th 1926 and April 14th 1931; and the fourth, the Generale phase on January 12th 1932. Each one of these brought new Animadversiones and, consequently, new Responsiones.
The most insidious of the Animadversiones to Pallotti’s heroic holiness and which took time to resolve was his alleged lack of respect for Pius IX.
Despite innumerable testimonies of the loyalty, esteem and obedience of Fr. Vincent to the Pope, some of his confidential and non-public expressions could lead to dubious interpretations.
Elisabetta Sanna had testified: “In the circumstances in which Gregory XVI died […] the Servant of God ordered me to pray a great deal that the Pontiff to be elected would be one elected in accordance with the will of God and not one elected with God’s permission”. When he heard that it was Pius IX who had been elected, the Servant of God “…raised his head and eyes to heaven, then lowered them in a gesture of resignation and said: «Let us do God’s will». I interpreted this gesture and these words to mean that the Pontiff Pius IX had been elected with God’s permission”.
At the election of Pius IX Fr. Vincent had said to Vaccari and to Francesco Pallotti: “Let us pray, great evils are in store for the Church” and he had said to Mgr. Kirby: “The excessively young and charming aspect [of the Pope] does not correspond with the serious office of Supreme Pontiff”.
Colonel De Gregorio testified that after the general amnesty of prisoners on the occasion of Pius IX’s election “…he [Fr. Vincent] made sorrowful exclamations, repeating that it was a time of chastisement”.
Shortly before the Roman revolution Fr. Vincent had told Tizzani whom he had met on Ponte Sisto: “ It is almost six months since I last went to the Pope. He has a wall of bronze before his eyes and fails to see the great dangers that tower over us. Let us pray for him!”
During the Roman devolution he had said to Randanini: “The Holy Father has given the stole and the tiara to the Sect [the Carboneria Movement] ”!
In spite of the testimony of Marquis de Gregorio who had attributed to the pontifical chamberlain the cause for Pallotti’s rarer visits to the Pope, the dicasteries of the Roman Curia had formed a negative impression. And the counsellors of Pius IX also maintained that it was impossible to canonize a Roman priest who had been so critical of the Pope.
Here I recount the opinions of two Consultors of the Congregation of Rites:
“Over and beyond the historical truth when dealing with Servants of God for whom beatification is sought, it is necessary to [have] a filial love and a profound respect for the Supreme Pontiff, and the facts show that these were lacking in the Venerable” in Animadversiones, Nova Positio super virtutibus…, op. cit., n. 18 pag. 17.
“It is not a question of an expression or two that could be interpreted benignly but of more expressions which are confirmed by texts and which rightly cast doubt on the respect the Servant of God had for the Pontiff ”.
Even the postulators of the cause were perplexed about what they should do.
The process of beatification came to a halt and got no further for eighty years.
The SAC made a notable contribution in defence of and in the recuperation of the validity of the foundation and spirituality of Pallotti. The II, III and IV General Chapters, as well as urging a life of prayer and the living of a personal and community life in accordance with the spirituality of the Founder, engaged in a series of initiatives such as greater knowledge of the Founder, the diffusion of images and pictures of him, of prayer cards, of leaflets… and above all, requested that in each Province a confrere be entrusted with the task of writing a biography of Pallotti and his charism. The fruits of this were the first publication, although in partial form, of the writings of Pallotti (edited by Hettenkofer) and important texts in German, Italian and English.
The solution gradually emerged.
According to Fr. Ansgario Faller SAC, the merit for this should be attributed to Cardinal F. Ehrle, appointed on December 17th 1930 to replace the deceased Cardinal Vannutelli as Relator of the Cause: Ehrle “…in 1932 had the courage to tell Pius XI that Pallotti was right and that Pius IX had imprudently allowed himself to be drawn into the historical events. The explanation for the interruption of Fr. Vincent’s visits to the Pope is proof of his reverence and simplicity. It would have been quite different had he said instead that he did not go to the Pope because he no longer mattered to him”.
On January 24th 1932, at that time Septuagesima Sunday, his Excellency Mgr. Carinci, Secretary of the Congregation of Rites, read the decree of Vincent Pallotti’s heroic virtues to Pius XI in the Consistorial Hall in the Vatican Palace.
6. THE TWO MIRACULOUS SIGNS FOR THE BEATIFCATION
The Second World War (1939-1945) marked an inevitable interruption in the process of beatification. After it ended Pius XII, on June 10th 1947, restored to Pallotti’s foundation the title of Catholic Apostolate, and the Congregation of priests and brothers was called the Society of the Catholic Apostolate.
On October 18th 1949 in the Apostolic Palace of the Vatican the Preparatory Congregation of the Sacred Congregation of Rites met to examine the two miracles presented for the beatification: the instantaneous cure on September 14th 1898 of the child Alessandro Lutri from serious cerebral concussion due to the rupture of the base of his skull; and the cure, also immediate, on September 12th 1947 of Mrs Margherita Sandner from multiple sclerosis, by which she had been afflicted for more than seventeen years.
On November 22nd 1949 a General Congregation was held in Castel Gandolfo at which the cardinals, prelates and priest consulters gave their favourable opinion. The Pope, as is the custom, delayed expressing his own for a few days. On November 27th, after praying and celebrating the Eucharist, he too gave his positive opinion.
On December 11th 1949, the Third Sunday of Advent, after celebrating the Eucharist Pius XII decreed that it was possible to proceed with the beatification of the Venerable Vincent Pallotti. The Pope wanted the beatification of his fellow Roman, born in the same district as he had been, to be celebrated on the centenary of his death and also to be the first beatification in the Holy Year 1950.
7. THE SECOND IDENTIFICATION OF THE BODY
On December 2nd 1949 Fr Vincent’s body was exhumed for the second time.
Representatives of the communities and of the Sisters of the Catholic Apostolate, a large number of the faithful and civil and religious personalities thronged the church from the early hours of the morning.
The coffin was removed from its niche and carried in procession to the second floor, to the chapel where Fr Vincent used to celebrate Mass during his last illness.
There it was opened and the body of the Venerable appeared, entirely wrapped in a white linen winding-sheet with a simple violet stole around the neck and a metal cross held by a silver-coloured cord upon the breast.
Only the head was uncovered.
The priests, brothers and postulants of the Society, the Pallottine Sisters with their novices and the girls from the Pious House of Charity in Borgo S. Agata all filed past the body. ‘Some passed in front of it with fear, others with courage but all with respect”.
When the doors were closed the body was lifted from the coffin and placed on a table covered with a white cloth. Freed from the shroud it was wrapped in, it appeared to be ‘in a state of partial mummification’, dark in colour but whole, except for the right arm that had already been found detached in the first recognition, as was also, partially, the left foot. The hair was well preserved. Pallotti was not as bald as he had been portrayed: his baldness extended only from his forehead to the top of his head.
According to witnesses his body had deteriorated since the first exhumation but no more than that of other saints. “It was left to dry out, being thoroughly impregnated with damp”.
On January 16th 1950 the body of Fr Vincent was placed in a bronze urn with glass panels, “it was ‘kept in shape by a silver-coated brass wire mesh’”, clothed in white priestly vestments, with silver-coated masking on the face and the hands also masked in a coat of silver
8. IN THE ‘GLORY’ OF BERNINI
Many pilgrims from every part of the world came for Fr Vincent’s beatification.
With its priests, brothers and postulants, the Society of the Catholic Apostolate was present in Rome with more than 450 people; there were more than 340 Sisters, including the novices and postulants. About 3,000 Italian lay faithful came from every corner of the country, without counting the students of the schools of the Pallottines of the Italian Province and of the Pallottine Sisters.
Twenty-five pilgrims came from Ireland, twenty from France, seventy-five from Austria, 630 from Switzerland and 1,100 from Germany. Others came from the United States of America, Honduras, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, South Africa and Australia.
On January 21st1950 the Supreme Pontiff Pius XII granted an audience to the Pallottine Union in the Hall of Blessings. The Pope spoke in six languages – Italian, German, French, Spanish, English and Portuguese – calling Fr Vincent the ‘trophy and ornament of the Roman clergy’. Then, accompanied by Fr A. Turowski, the Rector General, he viewed the gifts for the missions offered by the Union throughout the world.
On the morning of January 22nd the Vatican Basilica was decorated in the usual way: in the centre of the façade a great tapestry hung above the portico showing Fr Vincent offering the image of the Child Jesus to be kissed by the people of Rome, as he was wont to do at the end of his Octave of the Epiphany. Two other tapestries hung on the right and on the left, portraying the miraculous healing of Alessandro Lutri and Margherita Sandner.
About 20,000 people filled the Basilica to overflowing.
Among them, sitting side by side in the front row, were the two who had been miraculously cured.
In addition to the multitudes of Confreres of the Society and Sisters of the Catholic Apostolate, was a vast array of cardinals, bishops, prelates, religious and civil authorities, superiors of religious Orders and Congregations, Catholic Action leaders, ambassadors from the nations that had diplomatic relations with the Holy See and numerous lay faithful.
After the initial ceremonies, Mgr L. Campa, the Canon of the Vatican Basilica whose mother had been a friend of Fr Vincent, read Pius XII’s Apostolic Letter which, summing up Vincent Pallotti’s life and apostolate, proclaimed him Blessed in the Catholic Church: ‘We propose a very clear example of priestly and Christian virtues and designate a new heavenly and most loving protector; and, with our apostolic authority, we bestow the title of Blessed upon the Venerable Vincent Pallotti, priest and Founder of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate, and grant that his body, images of him or relics of him be proposed for public veneration”.
A four-part Te Deum was sung by the choir of the Cappella Giulia.
In Bernini’s ‘Gloria’ the canvas representing Fr Vincent with a halo flanked by two angels was immediately unveiled, while the throng in the basilica burst into a deafening, lengthy applause
At the end of the Te Deum a solemn pontifical Mass was celebrated with music by Pier Luigi da Palestrina.
In the afternoon Pius XII came down to the Basilica to venerate the new Blessed. It was packed with at least 40,000 jubilant people, including many religious and civil authorities.
After the exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, the hymn Iste Confessor, the prayer to the new Blessed and the Eucharistic Blessing, imparted by Mgr L. Traglia, Archbishop and Vice-Gerent, Fr A. Turowski, Rector General of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate, Fr G. Ranocchini, Postulator General, and Fr A. Weber, Procurator General, offered the Pope a bouquet of flowers with some images and biographies of Fr Vincent. The reliquary, that was not yet completed, was given to him two days later.
Pius XII left the Basilica greeted by the most enthusiastic applause.
Once they were outside in the square, the faithful acclaimed him once again and he appeared at his study window and blessed them repeatedly.
9. THE TRIDUUM AND THE SOLEMN PROCESSION
On 25th January the body of Blessed Vincent Pallotti was taken to the Church of S. Andrea della Valle for a solemn Triduum which began the following day and ended on 29th January with a solemn procession.
The urn of the Blessed was carried through the streets where he had lived and which had witnessed his ardent zeal and inexhaustible charity
Many ecclesiastical associations and colleges took part in the procession, organized by the Diocesan Council of Catholic Action, as did the civil authorities, led by the Mayor of the city followed by some of his councillors and the standard-bearers of the Roman rioni [districts] in their dress uniforms. The municipal police band led the procession playing, among other hymns, the official hymn composed by our confrere Maestro Fr. Gian Carlo Centioni SAC.
It was estimated that there were about 200,000 participants.
In the evening the urn with the Blessed’s body was returned privately to the Church of SS. Salvatore in Onda, where the homage of the faithful continued.
On February 2nd 1950, closed and sealed with the seals of the Sacred Congregation for Religious, the urn was placed under the high altar in SS. Salvatore in Onda .
10. ON THE WAY TO CANONIZATION: THE TWO MIRACULOUS SIGNS
After the beatification, many people experienced the intercession of Fr Vincent and not only attributed to it material and spiritual graces but also miraculous cures.
Two were chosen for the canonization.
Angelo Balzarani, a peasant from Roccasecca dei Volsci in the Province of Latina, in the winter of 1951, had developed a carbuncular pustule on his neck with a temperature of over 40° Celsius and acute pains in his head and in every part of his body.
On February 1st he was very seriously ill.
He was expected to die at any moment.
In the early hours of the afternoon of February 2nd Adele Giovannelli, his wife, applied to the pustule an image of Pallotti with a relic that a Pallottine Sister had given to her and asked her husband to recite with her, as best he could, one Our Father, one Hail Mary and one Glory be to the Father.
That same afternoon the miracle happened.
On the morning of February 3rd the fever subsided, the pulmonary oedema quickly healed and after a few days Balzarani returned to work in the fields.
The second extraordinary cure was that of Fr Adalberto Turowski, Rector General of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate. On December 14th1950 he was admitted to the Spirito Santo Clinic at Villa Stuart near Monte Mario, and on December 19th he underwent surgery for the removal of a stone from his gall bladder. The surgeon noted serious alterations to the structure of his liver and expressed the fear of post-surgical complications.
This fear proved well founded.
In the afternoon of December 23rd Fr Adalberto’s condition was very serious. In the evening there was another crisis. In the meantime, on December 16th a novena of prayers for him to Vincent Pallotti had begun in the Church of SS. Salvatore in Onda. The Sisters and the entire Polish Province of the Society were also praying for the healing of Fr Adalberto
A reliquary containing a relic of the Blessed had been placed on the patient’s chest.
At about 9:30 p.m. on that day, December 23rd, Fr Turowski’s condition unexpectedly, suddenly and radically changed.
The doctor present immediately noted that: ‘the state of agitation was ceasing, the sick man was peaceful, his face started to regain colour, losing its previous liquid yellow hue, his breathing became slower and deeper; his pulse could be felt and was almost regular, his eyes […] recovered a normal lively aspect’”. The patient slept until 2:15 a.m. on December 24th. When he awoke he felt better and ready to get out of bed, but for the wound that prevented him.
11. THE EXAMINATION OF THE TWO CURES
After Pope Pius XII had given his consent to the Commission’s reopening of the Cause for Canonization of Blessed Vincent Pallotti, the apostolic processes on the two cures were held in Priverno and in Rome, a decree of May 14th. 1954 confirmed their validity.
The two cures were then examined by the Medical College of the Sacred Congregation of Rites at a first session on October 8th1954 and at a second one on December 23rd that same year.
The Congregation of Rites examined the first cure at its Preparatory Congregation on October 25th 1955; the second cure, at that of May 2nd 1961 and both on March 6th 1962 in the presence of the new Pope John XXIII, who on October 28th1958 succeeded Pius XII who had died on the previous October 9th.
The participants expressed a positive opinion.
After the Eucharistic celebration on April 6th 1962, the Pope also recognized the authenticity of the cures, authorizing the publication of the decree of recognition of extraordinary supernatural events.
On July 7th 1962 John XXIII promulgated the decree known as the “Tuto” in which he declared that it was possible to proceed with certainty to the canonization of Blessed Vincent Pallotti.
On November 15th1962 a Consistory was held for the cardinals and bishops to vote on the canonization of the Blesseds: Vincent Pallotti, Confessor and Founder of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate; Peter Julian Eymard, Confessor and Founder of the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament and of the Servants of the Blessed Sacrament; Anthony Mary Pucci, Confessor of the Servite Order and Francis Mary of Camporosso, Confessor of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin.
Sixty-three cardinals, standing and uncovering their heads, pronounced the Placet, followed by the patriarchs, archbishops and bishops. The Pope expressed the hope that the intercession of the new blesseds and saints would bring an abundance of fruits to the Second Vatican Council, which had just concluded its first session.
The canonization of Vincent Pallotti was scheduled to take place on January 20th 1963 in the Basilica of St Paul’s but later, at the request of the Pontiff himself, the venue was changed to St Peter’s in the Vatican.
12. AMONG THE SAINTS
On a bitterly cold January 20th 1963, the celebration began at 8:30 in the morning with the procession of the regular and secular clergy from the Scala Regia into the Basilica, crossing St Peter’s square.
The Consultors of the Sacred Congregation of Rites walked in front with the Promoter General of the Faith and representatives of the Vicariate of Rome, led by the Vicegerent. They were followed by the members of the Arch-confraternity of the Most Blessed Sacrament of St Peter’s Basilica, carrying an enormous standard with the image of Blessed Vincent Pallotti. Bringing up the rear were Fr G. Möhler, Rector General of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate, Fr L. Lulli, Vicar General, and Fr G. Ranocchini, Postulator. Four ribbons hung from the standard, held respectively by the two General Consultors of the Society, Fr E. Felici and Fr St. Suwala, and by two relatives of Blessed Vincent, Marcello and Vincenzo Pallotti, descendants on his father’s side. The Provincial Rectors on each side carried candles. The papal procession with twenty-eight cardinals followed.
Awaiting them inside the Basilica were prelates, Vatican authorities, members of the Diplomatic Corps with their families, representatives of Catholic Action and other Roman lay associations. A special delegation of the Italian Government also took part, led by Minister Matarella. The City of Rome was represented by the mayor and adjunct mayor with the banner of the city and with representatives of the municipal police and of the faithful from Vitorchiano.
The Society of the Catholic Apostolate took part with 700 members, including all the Provincial Rectors – except one – and five missionary Bishops. There were 400 Pallottine Sisters of the Catholic Apostolate; eighty Missionary Sisters of the Catholic Apostolate and, sixteen each of the Sisters of St Hildegard and the Sisters of St Teresa. All the Mothers General were present.
The more than 9,000 pilgrims had come from every part of the world, without counting all those who came independently.
Pope John XXIII entered the Basilica on the gestatorial chair while the Creed was sung and advanced to the throne placed in the apse; and having put on the sacred vestments, after praying in silence he intoned the hymn Veni Creator Spiritus and the prayer that follows. Then, bareheaded, with all the participants standing, he pronounced the formula of canonization: ‘[…] we decree and define that Blessed Vincent Pallotti is a saint, and we inscribe his name in the catalogue of saints, and order that his memory be devoutly and piously celebrated each year among the Holy Confessors, on the 22nd of January, his feast. In the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Amen ”.
A long, thunderous applause followed the Pontiff’s words.
The Te Deum was chanted and a prayer to the new Saint was sung, then the Pope delivered a homily in which he presented St Vincent as a model of priestly life and he concluded by imploring the new saint to intercede for him, the ‘humble Bishop of Rome’, for his collaborators in the Curia and in the Vicariate, for all priests and, especially, for the Society of the Catholic Apostolate so that it might re-kindle new fervour in believers, to make them always and everywhere the ‘salt of the earth and light of the world’.
At the end of the canonization, the Pope left the Basilica applauded with great enthusiasm and devotion by the people and the clergy. A Pontifical Mass followed, celebrated at the papal altar by Cardinal Luigi Traglia, Vicar of Rome. The hymns were sung by the Sistine Chapel Choir. The entire celebration was broadcast throughout the world by Vatican Radio.
That evening the outside of St Peter’s Basilica and of the Generalate of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate were lit up, to the amazement and admiration of many Romans who had no idea why.
13. THE FEAST OF ST. VINCENT PALLOTTI AND THE PROCESSION
On January 21st the Saint’s urn was taken privately to the Church of S. Andrea della Valle for his feast to be celebrated the following day.
Pope John XXIII had announced that he would come to pay homage to it.
On January 22nd crowds of pilgrims and Romans already filled the Church, well known for its vast capacity, long before the celebration began.
The Pope, welcomed at the entrance by the Cardinal Vicar Luigi Traglia and by the two Rectors General, respectively of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate and of the Theatine Fathers, entered the Church to the singing of the Creed, venerated Pallotti’s relics and addressed the faithful.
The celebration continued with a solemn Mass, celebrated by the Rector General of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate, during which the priests and brothers publicly renewed their consecration.
A solemn Triduum in honour of St Vincent was celebrated from 24th to 27th January, once again in the Church of S. Andrea della Valle. In addition to the very large number of Masses said, Divine Liturgies were celebrated in Eastern rites – respectively the Armenian, Ukrainian Byzantine and Greek Byzantine – at the high altar in the morning. In the afternoon there were pontifical Masses with the appropriate homilies; the principal celebrants were Cardinal Paolo Giobbe, Cardinal Arcadio Maria Larroanna, Cardinal Fernando Cento and, of the last one, the Cardinal Vicar of Rome Luigi Traglia.
The Triduum ended on January 27th with a procession in which the Saint’s relics were transported through the city on a cart drawn by six horses. The municipal police band led the procession playing the official hymn, together with young people of various institutes and of the Catholic Action of Rome, parishioners of S. Lorenzo in Damaso with their parish priest, representatives of the thirty-two confraternities in which Fr Vincent had been enrolled with their standards, the regular and secular clergy and a multitude of Pallottine brothers, seminarians and priests in surplices and stoles. Behind the urn came the banner of the City of Rome and the banners of the different districts, carried by the faithful of Vitorchiano in their characteristic uniforms, and religious and political authorities.
The procession from S. Andrea della Valle reached Largo Argentina and Via Arenula, entered Via delle Zoccolette and continued down Via dei Pettinari and Via Giulia as far as S. Maria della Vallicella, winding through many of the streets that had been the field of Fr Vincent’s apostolate, to return at last to S. Andrea della Valle.
The windows of the houses and palaces along the way were decorated with flags. It was said that the number of participants was ‘incalculable’.
In the church a solemn Te Deum was sung and the Eucharistic blessing was imparted. The homage of the faithful went on until late. Well into the night the urn was brought back privately to SS. Salvatore in Onda.
14. BLESSED JOHN XXIII AT THE ROMAN SEMINARY
On February 24th 1963 John XXIII went for the fifth time to the Roman Seminary on the occasion of the feast of its Patroness, Our Lady, venerated by the title of ‘Mater mea, fiducia mea’ [Our Lady of Trust].
In his exhortation to the seminarians the Pope spoke once again of St Vincent Pallotti. After calling him his “choicest guide”, he recalled St Vincent’s thirteen years as spiritual director of the Roman Seminary, during which period he had left ‘such an impression of grace and wisdom that many students, even after their ordination, continued to go to him, anxious to have his spiritual direction’”.
15. ST. VINCENT PALLOTTI PROTECTOR OF THE MISSIONARY UNION OF THE CLERGY
On April 6th 1963, at the request of Cardinal P. Agagianian, Prefect of the Congregation of Propaganda Fide, Blessed John XXIII, with an Apostolic Letter, declared St Vincent Pallotti the heavenly Patron of the Pontifical Missionary Union of the Clergy, which at that time consisted of secular and religious priests ‘from almost fifty countries’.
On May 15th 1963 all the directors of the Pontifical Mission Societies and the members of the Superior Councils went to venerate Fr Vincent at the Church of SS. Salvatore in Onda and Mgr Sigismondo, then Secretary of the Congregation of Propaganda Fide, exalted the foresight, nobility, richness and loyalty of his missionary spirit, even to the point of sacrifice.
16. THE HOMAGE OF PAUL VI TO ST. VINCENT PALLOTTI
Pope Paul VI, who succeeded John XXIII on June 21st1963 after the latter’s death on June 3rd, also wanted to pay homage to St Vincent Pallotti.
Because of the many human and apostolic ties that connected Fr Vincent with the town of Frascati, it was there that Bishop Luigi Liverzani, the local Ordinary, the Generalate and the Italian Province of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate, organized a solemn Triduum in the Saint’s honour.
On August 28th 1963 the urn containing St Vincent’s body was brought from Rome. A solemn procession accompanied it from the entrance of the town to the cathedral, dedicated to St Peter.
On Sunday September 1st Paul VI came to Frascati from the summer residence at Castel Gandolfo.
Having been received by the ecclesial authorities and the Chapter of Tuscolo on the square in front of the cathedral, whereas the civil authorities had gathered in front of the presbytery, Paul VI entered the church to the singing of the Creed and celebrated Mass, served by the Pastor, Bishop Liverzani. At the end of the Gospel he delivered an extemporaneous homily.
17. ST VINCENT PALLOTTI AND THE POPES
The Popes, and therefore the official Church, have slowly discovered the spiritual, apostolic and ecclesial riches of Pallotti and have adapted them to the times.
17.1. LEO XIII
The Consent for the second process for the beatification, the ‘Processo Apostolico’ was given by him. He held Pallotti to be a saint and had devotion to him. Right up to his death he had a plaster bust of Pallotti in his bedroom, this is conserved now in the museum of the Generalate. When Leo XIII was a Bishop he was appointed Nuncio in Belgium but he was not very happy with the appointment. He asked advice of Pallotti who said to him: “Go there in peace! One day you will be the Pastor of the Pastors!”
17.2. PIUS XI
Pius XI presented Pallotti as a prophet of the apostolate of the laity.
Catholic Action was born after the first half of the XIX century and took on different characteristics in the various countries of Europe. It had religious aims and was a legitimate reaction claiming a social order unlike that created by the liberal, anticlerical, bourgeois, atheistic and Masonic forces , but it had a considerable secular autonomy in the formulation of apostolic projects and initiatives. The Hierarchy’s role was limited solely to final approval.
Catholic Action, following on the initial phase during the papacy of Pius IX, and some transformations which occurred during those of Pius X and Benedict XV, received its theological motivation from Pius XI. In the historical situation, marked by the totalitarian regimes of Germany and Italy, the Pope needed and sought a substantial lay body that could help the Church to preserve a social and civil position for her mission. He found one in Catholic Action, at least in Italy, which officially participated in that mission.
The Pope wanted the Association to be officially recognized in the Concordat between the Holy See and the Italian State of 1929 and, in 1931, when an order of the Public Security forces of the Fascist regime dissolved all youth associations of both sexes, he defended it strenuously. The Italian Catholic Action groups, subject to certain guarantees, were thus the only ones to stay open and to be authorized to carry out their activities. And when Fascism forbade any form of social or educational organization, to save the Italian Catholic laity Pius XI had it ‘enter the ark of Catholic Action”.
On January 24th 1932 when the Decree of the Heroicity of the virtues of Vincent Pallotti was read out before Pius XI, the Rector General of the SAC, Fr Giacinto Cardi, presented Fr Vincent as a prophet of the apostolate of the laity “...with such a vast and wise programme that he could deservedly be included among the precursors of Catholic Action, which is a chosen part of Your Paternal Heart”.
The Pope, in his reply, confirmed and presented Pallotti as a model of priestly holiness for the Diocese of Rome and ‘a provident and precious forerunner and collaborator’ of Catholic Action: ‘the priest who intuited the emergence of Catholic Action and its very name, founding the Society of the Catholic Apostolate, namely, the raison d’être of Catholic Action, the lay apostolate under the direction of the hierarchical apostolate”.
Pius XI wished to express esteem for Pallotti’s sense of vocation, his formation of the laity and their participation in his projects, by proclaiming Fr. Vincent a precursor and collaborator of Catholic Action the Pope was suggesting, perhaps, that the Association draw close to him not only as its protector but also as its model - “...to come into contact with his inexhaustible apostolic work”- and that the Pallottine family might recognize in the Association a component of its charism or at least one of its activities. There was the conviction that the spirit of Catholic Action and Fr. Vincent’s thoughts were identical. Neither of these two things ever happened; neither the International nor the National Catholic Action were spiritually or apostolically inspired by Vincent Pallotti, nor did the male or female Pallottines see in it the fullness of their charism, although they worked very generously for the Association.
17.3. PIUS XII
On June 10th 1947 Pius XII restored the title “Catholic Apostolate” to the Pious Society of the Missions. This was the official recognition of the Church that the “Catholic Apostolate” was not exclusive to an ecclesial sector – the hierarchy – but was rather a fundamental aspect of the entire Church and the Pallottine Society was committed to living it and promoting it.
On January 21st 1950, the evening before the beatification, the Supreme Pontiff Pius XII granted an audience to the Pallottine Union in the Hall of Blessings. The Pope spoke in six languages – Italian, German, French, Spanish, English and Portuguese – calling Fr Vincent the ‘trophy and ornament of the Roman clergy’. Then, accompanied by Fr A. Turowski, the Rector General, he viewed the gifts for the missions offered by the Union throughout the world. The Apostolic Letter of the Beatification defined Pallotti as “…a very clear example of Christian and priestly virtue…a heavenly and most loving protector ” (ACTASAC, I, 447)
17.4. BLESSED JOHN XXIII
17.4.1. The Canonization in St. Peters
John XXIII in the homily at the Canonization presented Fr. Vincent as a model of priestly life. He associated him first of all with St. Gaspar del Bufalo: “Two Roman priests; two apostles of the ways of spreading the holy doctrine among the people; two tireless workers who, beside the Chair of Peter where the loving and attractive exercise of the universal governance of the Catholic Church is resplendent, radiated the most brilliant light of their outstanding example on the word of Jesus, which is the basis of every apostolic activity: Bonus pastor, bonus pastor! (Jn 10, 1-16)”.
Then he stressed three luminous aspects that shone out in all the blesseds and saints of the Roman clergy and particularly in Fr Vincent; ‘honour for the Roman clergy’, a wise custodian ‘of the pastoral spirit’ and a source ‘of teaching and encouragement for all times’.
Fr. Vincent was a model for the clergy: “His features are reflected […] with respect on all the clergy of the City, of the past, of the present and – we are quite sure of this – of the future; […] [Fr Vincent] did honour to the assignment that came to him through belonging to the clergy of the first diocese of the Catholic world. His name marked a period of reawakening, both in Rome and in all the dioceses, battered since the previous century by the gales of new theories and by demands, some of which were legitimate and others somewhat disordered”.
What priests could learn from Fr Vincent’s life was that ‘the many works started […] with an eye predicting the needs of the times, but abandoned, as it were, undeveloped when he was fifty-five years old’, witnessed to the fact ‘that God wants his priests to be docile instruments in his hands and nothing else; useless servants, yes, but workers of spiritual miracles in the sanctuary of souls”.
Lastly came the encouragement ‘to persevere on the path marked out by Jesus Christ: holiness of life for the sanctification of souls’, in other words to have:
‘the primacy of prayer and of the supernatural spirit’; to possess ‘a hierarchy with a good understanding of all the values, subordinating every other need to that of the sanctification of oneself and of others’; to commit oneself to ‘study for effective sacred preaching and for spiritual direction’; to exercise a ‘direct care of souls, with patience and wisdom in the confessional, in the works of the apostolate and of social action, leaving to lay collaborators concern for the more minute details”.
The Pope ended by imploring the new saint to intercede for him, the ‘humble Bishop of Rome’, for his collaborators in the Curia and in the Vicariate, for all priests and, especially, for the Society of the Catholic Apostolate so that it might kindle new fervour in believers, to make them always and everywhere the ‘salt of the earth and light of the world”.
17.4.2. The Feast of St. Vincent Pallotti in San Andrea della Valle
John XXIII had already communicated that he would visit the Church of San Andrea della Valle, and so on January 22nd went to the Church which was crowded with pilgrims and Romans, where the urn of the Saint had been taken privately the previous day, in order to celebrate his feast. The Pope, welcomed at the entrance by the Cardinal Vicar Luigi Traglia and by the two Rectors General, respectively of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate and of the Theatine Fathers, entered the Church to the singing of the Creed, venerated Pallotti’s relics and addressed the faithful.
He began by recalling two episodes concerning Pius IX and the Saint: Fr Vincent’s prophecy of Pius IX’s election to the papacy and the homily that Pius IX gave on the last day of the Octave in 1847. These two episodes, together with the last visit of John XXII to S. Andrea della Valle, must be considered the summit on which to make converge ‘the hearts of many good priests and people won over by the enchantment of Our Lord Jesus Christ’s love”.
Then the Pope greeted joyfully the many pilgrims present, the wonderful blossoming of the apostolate of Pallotti and his disciples, gathered to glorify the great Saint together and with him “in a single pulsation of admiring love and fervent recognition”.
He summed up St Vincent’s life in two phrases: a model of lumen fidei and of flamma caritatis, so intense that one might exclaim that God is truly admirable in his saints, through whom he draws ‘souls to heaven, to the triumph of the Gospel”.
Defining saints as ‘the eternal springtime of the Church”, the Pope urged priests to be faithful to their vocation, a condition of life which, if lived authentically, assures consolation.
He again associated Fr Vincent with Gaspar del Bufalo; both had been examples that ‘represent what is noblest and, one might say, most dynamic, that succeed in eliciting absolute trust in the sacred ministry”.
In the meantime the Second Vatican Council was taking place with the aim of giving the Church a new impetus in continuing Christ’s mission in the modern world. The Pope recalled the common obligation to cooperate in the salvation of all: ‘If each person is obliged to fulfil his own duty, to save himself, […] all, nevertheless, are bound to contribute to spreading the commitment to love that lets us see others, whatever their origin, race and language, as so many brothers and sisters’, in order to show that ‘Christ is alive, Christ is triumphant; he still spreads his grace, as in the early times – indeed more than ever”.
17.4.3. At the Roman Seminary
On February 24th1963 John XXIII went for the fifth time to the Roman Seminary on the occasion of the feast of its Patroness, Our Lady, venerated by the title of ‘Mater mea, fiducia mea’ [Our Lady of Trust].
In his exhortation to the seminarians the Pope spoke once again of St Vincent Pallotti. After calling him his “choicest guide””, he recalled St Vincent’s thirteen years as spiritual director of the Roman Seminary, during which period he had left ‘such an impression of grace and wisdom that many students, even after their ordination, continued to go to him, anxious to have his spiritual direction”.
The Pope summed up Fr Vincent’s activity at the Seminary as the “wise formation of souls, in constant homage to Our Lady and in the multiple apostolate for the Kingdom of Christ”.
Concerning this wise formation of souls, the Pope highlighted the triple condition that Fr Vincent had demanded of the candidates to the priesthood: ‘chastity, chastity and chastity’; he meant it as ‘fundamental self-control, that shines out and spreads’, because for the priest this ‘is his strength, the source of every consolation”.
From Pallotti’s intense devotion to Our Lady, the Pope drew the need for continuous recourse to the Most Holy Virgin, whose effectiveness ‘is felt most significantly at serious moments, in doubt and uncertainty, at times when we need God’s intervention’ because, according to what Jesus himself declared on Calvary, Mary is our Mother and we are her children.
As a third dominant characteristic the Pope pointed to St Vincent’s apostolate ‘What a flame, what ardour, even if it was often in the most modest forms!” In a time of terrible, devastating storms he was not satisfied with the ordinary ministry but “thought up new ways of making God known and loved by souls.”.
And this was how the Holy Father portrayed Fr Vincent’s Catholic Apostolate:
“the good done for the benefit of an individual does not suffice; let its saving rays be extended to two, three, 100, 1,000 other people; and not only to those who are close but, as far as possible, also to those who live in distant lands. From one spark, from sparks kindled here and there, powerful lights of charity and doctrine are lit”.
Lastly the Pope expressed his hope that no priests would restrict their apostolic commitment to a specific territory or environment but that, with the Saint’s universality, they would move freely to “wherever a need appears, a possibility of bringing Christ’s fire”, because “Jesus is on the Cross, his arms wide open, and he calls and waits for all souls to come to him; he gave himself for the whole world; he wants to clasp everyone to his pierced Heart. And priests are the ministers of this infinite love”.
17.4.4. St. Vincent Pallotti Protector of the Missionary Union of the Clergy
On April 6th1963, at the request of Cardinal P. Agagianian, Prefect of the Congregation of Propaganda Fide, Blessed John XXIII, with an Apostolic Letter, declared St Vincent Pallotti the heavenly Patron of the Pontifical Missionary Union of the Clergy, which at that time consisted of secular and religious priests “from almost fifty countries”.
“It seemed to us appropriate’, the Pope wrote, “that this pious collaboration of priests have a heavenly protector so that each one might devote himself to propagating the name “Christian” more energetically and gather spiritual fruits in greater abundance. We remembered St Vincent Pallotti, whom we recently canonized, who dealt most ingeniously with the missionary question and strove very effectively to bring back to Christ’s one flock brothers and sisters separated from the Apostolic See”.
The Church, in the words of her Supreme Pastor, officially recognized Pallotti’s missionary projects, views and initiatives ad gentes as effective and entrusted the competent priestly structure of communion to his intercession: “Therefore, with proven knowledge, after mature reflection and in the fullness of apostolic power, with this Apostolic Letter we constitute and declare St Vincent Pallotti, Confessor, as the principal Patron with God, in perpetuity, of the Pontifical Missionary Union of the Clergy’”.
On May 15th 1963 all the directors of the Pontifical Mission Societies (Works) and the members of the Superior Councils went to venerate Fr Vincent at the Church of SS. Salvatore in Onda and Mgr Sigismondo, then Secretary of the Congregation of Propaganda Fide, exalted the foresight, nobility, richness and loyalty of his missionary spirit, even to the point of sacrifice .
17.5. THE HOMAGE OF PAUL VI
Pope Paul VI, who succeeded John XXIII on June 21st 1963 after the latter’s death on June 3rd, also wanted to pay homage to St Vincent Pallotti.
Because of the many human and apostolic ties that connected Fr Vincent with the town of Frascati, it was there that Bishop Luigi Liverzani, the local Ordinary, the Generalate and the Italian Province of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate, organized a solemn Triduum in the Saint’s honour.
On August 28th 1963 the urn containing St Vincent’s body was brought from Rome. A solemn procession accompanied it from the entrance of the town to the cathedral, dedicated to St Peter.
On Sunday September 1st Paul VI came to Frascati from his summer residence at Castel Gandolfo.
Having been received by the ecclesial authorities and the Chapter of Tuscolo on the square in front of the cathedral, whereas the civil authorities had gathered in front of the presbytery, Paul VI entered the church to the singing of the Creed and celebrated Mass, assisted by the Pastor, Bishop Liverzani. At the end of the Gospel he delivered an extemporaneous homily.
After greeting the authorities and the faithful, Paul VI introduced the purpose of his visit: “to pay homage to a Saint whom Frascati can count among its honorary citizens: St Vincent Pallotti”, stressing, however, the importance not only of having him back dead, “in his most venerable body, but also […] alive in his spirit and in the energies he was able to awaken in God’s Church”.
The Pope recalled poetically the symphony that from Frascati reaches the ears of those who know how to listen: echoes of classical memories; voices of the romantic world and of the medieval stories of Tuscolo, ‘so dramatic, so obscure and sometimes so great’; the thunder of bombs, the cries of the wounded and the heroic conduct of the Bishop of the time in going to their rescue during the aerial bombardments of 1944; sounds of the city today, reborn in its villas and gardens.
Paul VI then spoke of Pallotti’s charism and apostolic action, recording two distinct but not separate moments.
As happens with all saints, St Vincent at first had ‘a sorrowful and almost dramatic’ perception of evil, of contemporary society’s shortcomings and unfaithfulness to God’s grace and mercy: “We are passive, forgetful; not to say that we are at times deserters from the great calling that God’s mercy has spread throughout the world with Christianity”.
However, the Saint had also heard the voice from heaven calling him to “recompose society in a Christian way, to reawaken it”. Fr Vincent had not only seen “man fallen and weak […] but also redeemable man who could be recomposed in a new stature and form and from whom the saint and the hero could spring”. Like all saints he had rebelled against every pessimistic vision and every conclusion that would authorize laziness or giving up, and had turned not only to the clergy which is ‘invested with the normal task of eliciting holiness and moral forces in the world’, but also to the laity. He had “seen that the lay person could himself become an active element”, …[…] that also in the secular world there is a great capacity for good, initially passive, dormant, timid and incapable of finding expression. Awakening this awareness in the laity St Vincent, as it were, sparked new energies, he gave lay people an awareness of their potential for good, he enriched the Christian community with a quantity of vocations, not only did he promote the passive and tranquil acceptance of faith, but also the “active and militant profession of this faith itself”.
“‘The genius of his spiritual and social vision”, was not only that of being the precursor of collaboration with the hierarchical apostolate but also the pioneer of the originality and dignity of the lay vocation. St Vincent had discovered and identified that
“awareness of this does not only come from the need to lengthen the priest’s arms which no longer reach all environments and do not suffice for all the work to be done; it comes from something deeper and more essential, that is, from the fact that the lay person too is a Christian; this welled up from the depths of his conscience”, Fr Vincent, ahead of his time, built “a bridge between clergy and laity, one of the ways most often taken today by modern spirituality […] that gives greater hope in God’s Church”.
For the Pope, the extremely timely lesson that stemmed from St Vincent Pallotti’s experience was the development of the adult lay vocation: ‘This is the time, this is the time of lay people, it is the time of souls who have realized that being Christian constitutes good fortune, a great risk and a great duty. To carry the Cross of the Lord with the clergy in society’s midst and to seek to preach this Christ who is always surrounded by the drama of contradiction: those who accept him, those who contest him and those who wish to crucify him, to carry this drama in our modern world”.
The Pope felt that today’s lay believers should first tell themselves: “I must do something too; I cannot be merely a passive and insensitive instrument”. The hierarchy itself calls them to stand beside it, to help, and says to them: “Come with me, let us seek to coordinate ourselves, let us concert our ideals and programmes and we shall then distribute the tasks to be done”.
Re-echoing, as it were, the universal apostolic concern of Fr Vincent Pallotti’s first Appeal, Paul VI ended with these words: ‘You too, the faithful, you too, lay people, come and help in the Church’s work […] bring your intelligence, […] your ingenuity in finding new ways of channelling Christ’s message. Come, above all, with that awareness which I leave you as a final exhortation of my presence here. […] We must act today, today, because this is the law of the Christian conscience. When one has discovered a duty, one does not say: I will do it tomorrow. One needs to act immediately. […] It is necessary to act today because, my brothers and sisters, my children, tomorrow may be too late; […] we need to act today if Christ is to continue to be our Teacher and our Saviour”. The Pope returned to Castel Gandolfo amidst the loud applause of the people.
17.6. JOHN PAUL II
No other Pope had such frequent contact with the Pallottine family than John Paul II: seventeen addresses between visits, pastoral visits, messages, consecration of churches, audiences with the delegates of five General Assemblies of the SAC, of the Chapter of the Pallottine Sisters and that of the Pallottine Missionary Sisters. In speaking of Pallotti he invited (us) to rediscover and live the dimension of love of God and of others as the central pivot of our spirituality and as the motivating force for the apostolate both for the individual and for apostolic workers together in order to form and to be the “Church of communion”.
During his pontificate, on October 28th 2003, feast of the Apostles Simon and Jude, the Pontifical Council for the Laity canonically erected St. Vincent Pallotti’s Union of Catholic Apostolate as an “International public association of the faithful of pontifical right, with juridic personality, in accord with the norms of canons 298-320 and 327-329 of the Code of Canon Law” and approved its Statutes ad experimentum, initially for five years” and then approved them definitively in 2008. This “act of ecclesial authenticity” was and is the recognition and the confirmation of the timeliness of St. Vincent Pallotti’s charism in the life of the Church and the recognition that “in spite of the passing of the years and of generations of Christians, it has not aged at all, it has lost none of its original freshness and continues to fascinate many of our contemporaries: men and women, young and old, among whom today it still sows great fruits of holiness and missionary commitment “.
In our time nothing is missing from the Pallottine inspiration of 1835; the various parts and the entire foundation are now an ecclesial reality as Pallotti wanted them to be and for which he had fought so hard. Our gratitude however is, first and foremost, “…to live the charism in a responsible manner […] not with a stereotyped fidelity but rather with creative fidelity, a fidelity capable of taking on the new challenges that the contemporary world presents to the Church ”.
18. HOW WILL WE LIVE THE 50th ANNIVERSARY OF THE CANONIZATION OF OUR FOUNDER?
1. Two experiences from our recent past:
v 1985: 150th anniversary of the foundation of the Union of Catholic Apostolate (at an International level):
§ Youth pilgrimage
v 1995: Bicentenary of the birth of St. Vincent Pallotti (at an International level):
§ Congress - convention
§ Youth pilgrimage
2. What could be done for the spiritual growth of the SAC and of the Union of Catholic Apostolate, and where? Which SAC/UAC initiatives implement?
At the various levels:
v The International level:
§ Pilgrimage/s, adults, young persons…
§ Conventions/congresses: where? On what topic?
§ A prayer vigil or other celebration in St. Peters?
§ A travelling display of relics?
v At the Provincial/Regional/Delegature level:
§ a triduum/novena of prayer?
§ conventions/congresses, meetings/encounters;
v In the city/Diocese of Rome:
§ a novena/triduum and celebration at SS. Salvatore in Onda?
§ The Church of Spirito Santo dei Napoletani?
§ A procession like those held at the time of the beatification and canonization?
§ If and how to involve the diocese?
3. Mass media
§ the website/web sites, how to make good use of them?
§ the preparation and production of a film, a work of fiction, a video, a dvd…
§ new pictures/paintings, publications, biographies?
 Cf. Proc. Ord., Lambruschini, f. 224.
 Cf. ibid, ff. 1-2 and following.
 Cf. ibid, ff. 167-227.
 Cf. ibid, ff. 580-632.
 Cf. ibid, ff. 1570-1615.
 Cf. ibid, ff. 662-699.
 Cf. ibid, ff. 506-566. Other witnesses were Marquis Emanuele de Gregorio, Colonel of the General Staff of the Papal Army, cf. ibid, 730-787; Fr. Francesco Virili, a missionari of the Most Precious Blood, cf. ibid, ff. 1458- 1569 and ff. 1731-2007; Fr. Felice Randanini, cf. ibid, ff. 2034-2052 and ff. 2121-2142; and the sixty-year-old widowed layman Giuseppe Massani, who had attended the Piarist’ school with Pallotti, cf. ibid, ff. 788-818; Vincenzo Gori (ff. 228-300); Marquis Girolamo Sacchetti (ff. 633-652); Filippo Rossi (ff. 653-661); Fr. Mariano Pichelli, Procurator General of the Camaldolese (ff. 700-749); Giuseppe Casella (ff. 819-839); Fr. Giovanni De Muro, Rector of the Church of Spirito Santo dei Napoletani (ff. 1432-1457); Fr Andrea Mogliazzi (ff. 1616-1731); Fr. Raffaele Natali (ff. 2010-2034); Fr. Luigi Prinzivalli (ff 2090-2120) and, finally, Fr. Angelo Bruscolini (ff. 2143-2162).
 Cf. Proc Ord., ff. 1396-1431.
 Cf. ibid, Melia ff. 840-1395 and Vaccari ff. 301-505.
 Cf. Positio super Virtutibus, Responsio ad Animadversiones, 102
 Cf. Positio super Virtutibus, Animadversiones…, 25-27.
 Ibid, 14 and 16-17.
 Ibid, 8 and 9.
 Ibid, 21-23.
 Cf. Proc. Ord., f. 2271. There were 454 sessions and a total of 2.271 folio in the copia pubblica.
 Cf. Positio super Virtutibus, p. 36 and 52.
 Cf. Factum concordatum in Novissima Positio super Virtutibus, p. 2.
 “...non lumina ad eius sepulchrum accensa, non votivas tabellas appensas, non effigies sculptas aureolis aut radiis insignitas”, cf. ANALECTA, I, 83; translation “no lamps lit at his place of burial, no ex voto, no images with aureoles and rays.
 There were eighteen sessions and ten witnesses called in order: Fr. Toffini, SAC, Vicar General (ff. 60-68); Mr. A. Penna (ff. 68-75); Mr. E. Cruciani, infirmarian of the house of SS. Salvatore in Onda (ff. 76-86); Fr. G. Di Gennaro SAC, the Rector of the Church of SS. Salvatore in Onda (ff. 88-95); Fr. D. Porrazzo SAC, First Consultor and Rector of the Retreat of la Madonna della Neve at Rocca Priora (ff. 96-102), who commented that: “...at the time of the restoration of the Church, the coffin containing the body [of Fr. Vincent] was carried to the room in which he died and, once the paving of the Church had been repaired, it was returned to the same place”; Mrs. A. Bernardini, the widow of Staderini (ff. 104-115); Fr. G. B. Vogel SAC, Superior of the Studentate and General Consultor (ff. 123-133); Mr. P. Coluzzi (ff. 135-139); Br. V. Saccoccia SAC (ff. 145-147) and Mr. A. Guardabassi, custodian of the Church of SS: Salvatore in Onda (ff. 147).
 Cf. Factum concordatum, in Novissima Positio super virtutibus, op. cit., pag. 2.
 The Copia publica has four volumes with a total of 2,100 sheets. The eleven witnesses at the Processo super fama…, were, in order: Fr Massimo S.J., of whom Fr Vincent had been godfather at his baptism (ff. 61-78); Fr M. Cerroni, who had lived with Fr Vincent for two years in the community of Spirito Santo de’ Napoletani (ff. 78-87); Mr F. Lazzaroni (ff. 87-104); Fr G. Withmee, SAC, Rector General (ff. 104-135); Sr M. Paolina Cuggiani, Superior of the Pious House of Charity (ff. 135-151; Count L. Latini Macioti (ff. 151-160); Mr F. Forti (ff. 162-172); Fr A. Polverosi (ff. 173-193); Mr G. Pediconi (ff. 193-202); Sr M. Vincenza Favale (ff. 202-215 and 227-234) and Mr F. Navone (ff. 216-227).
 Cf. Factum concordatum, in Novissima Positio super Virtutibus, op. cit., 3
 Cf. ibid.
 Fr. Antonio Salvatori, a collaborator at the Spirito Santo dei Napoletani, cf. Proc. Ap., ff. 192-273 and ff. 362-371; Marquis Emanuele De Gregorio, Colonel of the Pontifical Guards; Fr. Paolo Scapaticci, ex Chiliarca (offical) of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith and a councillor on its Roman Central Council, cf. ibid, ff. 371-507 and ff. 741-749; Fr. Giuseppe Piazza, an alunnus of the Roman Seminary and a professor of oriental languages who worked at the Vatican Library cf. ibid, ff. 507-533 and ff. 573-599; Card. F. B. Richard Archbishop of Paris, cf. ibid, ff. 609-615; Archbishop Tobias Kirby, titular archbishop of Ephesus and, from 1850 to 1891, Rector of the Irish College, cf. ibid, ff. 691-741; Mgr. B. Woodlock, Bishop of the Irish Diocese of Ardagh cf. idid, ff. 702-712; the Patriarch of Antioch Mons. V. Tizzani 784-805, Giuseppe Marinoni cf. ibid, ff. 749-783, Br. Alberico Palombi cf, ibid, ff. 615-691, until 1853 he was a Pallottine Brother with the name of Angelo and later became a lay brother of the Cistercians of St. Bernard at S. Croce in Gerusalemme, with the name of Alberico; the confreres, Fr. Guglielmo Withmee SAC cf. ibid 1099-1177; Br. G. Bianchi SAC cf. ibid, ff. 976-1032; and Fr. S. Tofini SAC cf. ibid ff.1032-1063; the Superior of the Pia Casa di Velletri Sr. M. Colomba Cometti, who had previously had one of her arms healed by Fr. Vincent himself cf. ibid ff.805-869; Count Luigi Latini Macioti, son-in-law of Giacomo Salvati, cf. ibid, ff.869-887 and a relative of the Venerable Mr. Alfredo Blasi, cf. ibid, ff. 1187-1206. Other texts (of witnesses) at the Processo Apostolico were: A. Plebani, son of Count Antonio di Amandola, ff. 543-573; Mr. F. Navone, ff. 967-975; Mrs. E. Penna, ff.1206-1217; Mr. Leonori, ff. 1217-1246; Bro. F. Rocchi, ff. 1247-1259 and Canon Fr. A. Recchia ff. 1259-1279.
 Cf. Proc. Ap., ff. 1866-1895.
 Cf. Proc. Ap., 1867-1868: HIC. IACET. CORPUS. / VEN. SERVI. DEI. VINCENTII. PALLOTTI. SACERDOTIS. ROMANI. / FUNDATORIS. CONGREGATIONIS. ET. PIAE. SOCIETATIS. APOSTOLATUS. CATHOLICI. / NATUS. A.D. MDCCXCV. DIE. XX. APRILIS. / VIXIT. ANNOS. LIV. MENSES. IX. DIEM. UNUM. / OBIIT. A. D. MDCCCL. MENSIS. IANUARII. XXII. (translation: Here rests the body of the Venerable Servant of God Vincent Pallotti, Roman priest, Founder of the Congregation of the Pious Society of the Catholic Apostolate. Born in 1795 on April 20th; he lived 54 years, 9 months and a day. He died in the year of the Lord 1850, on January 22nd)
 “...the corpse appeared whole, completely preserved although blackened by mummification, and soaking wet from the humidity and with the exception of the fingers of one hand and both feet, whose phalanges were partly detached as were the cartilages of the nose and ears, all the other soft tissue and the teguments of the body were intact (…) the right forearm was detached from the arm at the elbow joint”; Proc. Ap., Prof. Dr. G. Panegrossi and Dr. Cav. G. Salvatori, f. 1894.
 Amice, alb, cincture, maniple, stole, a violet coloured chasuble and a biretta, cfr. Proc. Ap., f. 1869.
 “It was our opinion that it was appropriate to let the corpse be exposed to the air for a few days for it to dry out and become completely mummified”; Proc. Ap., Panegrossi G., f. 1874.
 The new niche was made where there had been a fresco of the urn and the inscription, destroying them. Only the upper border of the fresco survives.
 HIC. IACET. CORPUS./ VEN. SERVI. DEI. VINCENTII PALLOTTI. SACERDOTIS. ROMANI./ FUNDATORIS. PIAE. SOCIETATIS. MISSIONUM. (“PALLOTTINI”)./ APOSTOLICA. AUCTORITATE. RECOGNITUM./ DIE. XXII. MENSIS. MARTII. MDCCCCVI./ OBIIT. DIE. XXII. MENS. IANUARII. MDCCCL. AN. N. LIV./, Proc. Ap. 1889, f.; translation: Here rests the body of the Venerable Servant of God Vincent Pallotti, Roman priest, Founder of the Congregation of the Pious Society of the Missions (Pallottines), exhumed under the authority of the Holy See on March 22nd 1906. He died on January 22nd 1850 at the age of 54. The urn and the inscription are preserved in the corridor of the Church of SS. Salvatore in Onda.
 “Affirmative …, demptis tamen attestationibus extraiudicialibus”, translation : The opinion is positive, excluding, however, the Deposizioni Stragiudiziali, cf. ANALECTA, I, 81.
 Cf. Positio super introductione Causae, 1921; Nova Positio super Virtutibus, 1926, Causae Relator L. Card. Vannutelli; Alia Nova Positio super Virtutibus, 1931, Causae Relator F. Card. Ehrle e Novissima Positio super Virtutibus, 1931, Causae Relator F. Card. Ehrle, in the General Archive of the Postulation.
 One example for all: “If I criticized some action of Pius IX, he would raise his voice and violently defend him, saying that he was a saint and that we had to respect everything he did: and in defending the Pope he became even more heated. And these were the only times when I saw him get excited”, Proc. Ap., De Gregorio, f. 336-337.
 Cf. Proc. Ord., Sanna, f. 546.
 Proc. Ord., Vaccari f. 362 and Pallotti F. ff. 694-695; for the second expression, Proc. Ap., Kirby, f. 724.
 Ibid, De Gregorio, f. 775.
 Proc. Ap., Tizzani f. 790; cf. also Stragiudiziali, Piacentini.
 Proc. Ord., Randanini, f. 2129.
 “He learned the real reason from Monsignor Chamberlain: he and other figures at the court were bothered by his [Fr. Vincent’s] continuous visits which took up much of the Pope’s time; they were annoyed at seeing him kneeling and praying behind curtains. Thus the Chamberlain distanced him. The Venerable did not take offence and said that it was only right that the Pope should not be disturbed by him”, Proc. Ap., De Gregorio, f. 278.
 cf. Animadversiones in Nova Positio super virtutibus…, op. cit., n.16 pag.14.
 “Certain words of the Servant of God about Pius IX, given the circumstances of the time, may have a benign interpretation, since it appears abundantly clear that Venerable Vincent had always had a special veneration for and obedience to the Supreme Pontiffs, especially Pius IX, whose authority he defended strenuously when he had the opportunity to say to certain detractors that he had spent all his life and all his efforts in the service of God and the Church for the salvation of souls’ (cf. Animadversiones, nos. 9 and 10, in Novissima position…, op. cit.; cf. also ibid., Responsio ad Animadversiones, nos. 8-14, in the Archivio Generale della Postulazione.
 “In the present circumstances, it will be prudent for me not to go to the Holy Father and since April 6th I have not returned there” cf. OCL VI 1498, 270.
 A note by Faller A. SAC undated, in Istituto Pallotti.
 “Constare de virtutibus theologalibus Fide, Spe, Caritate tum in Deum tum in proximum, nec non de cardinalibus Prudentia, Iustitia, Temperantia, Fortitudine, earumque adnexis Servi Dei VINCENTII PALLOTTI in gradu heroico in casu et ad effectum de quo agitur”, cfr. ANALECTA, II, 215-216. “No one from the Generalate of the Pious Society for Missions was missing. Among the others were the Rector General Fr.G. Cardi and the Postulator Fr.J. Hettenkofer. Speeches were delivered by representatives of the Pallottine houses in Rome, Lido di Ostia and Rocca Priora with a considerable attendance of religious and students. Large numbers of Pallottine Sisters were present, as well as several relatives of the Servant of God”, cf. ANALECTA, II, 210-211.
 Cf. Copia publica transumpti Processus Apostolica autoritate Romae constructi super asserto miraculo divinitus patrato per intercessionem Ven. Servi Dei Vincentii Pallotti, Sacerdotis Fundatoris Piae Societatis Missionum, 1932, one volume , Archivio della Postulazione Generale.
 Cf. Copia publica transumpti Processus Apostolica autoritate Ratisbonae constructi super asserto miraculo divinitus patrato per intercessionem Ven. Servi Dei Vincentii Pallotti, Sacerdotis Fundatoris Piae Societatis Apostolatus Catholici, 1948, one volume, and Copia publica transumpti Processiculi Apostolica autoritate constructi in Curia Ratisbonensi super asserto miraculo divinitus patrato per intercessionem Ven. Servi Dei Vincentii Pallotti, Sacerdotis Fundatoris Piae Societatis Apostolatus Catholici, 1948, one volume, both volumes are in the General Archive of the Postulation.
 Cf. ACTASAC, I, 417.
 “TUTO procedi posse ad solemnem Ven. Vincentii Pallotti beatificationem”, ACTASAC, I, 428.
 Cf. Recognitio exuviarum Ven. Servi Dei Vincentii Pallotti, Copia publica, 1949, 1; Archivio Generale della Postulazione.
 Cf. ACTASAC, I, 436.
 Cf. ibid, 438
 Cf. Recognitio altera…, op. cit., 16.
 Cf. ACTASAC, I, 438.
 Cf. Recognitio altera…, op. cit., 17.
 Cf. ibid.
 Cf. ACTASAC, I, 452 and 464.
 Cf. ibid, 452-454.
 Cf. ibid, 447: “…novum proponamus christianarum et sacerdotalium virtutum praeclarissimum exemplar, novumque tribuamus caelestem, amantissimum tutorem, auctoritate Nostra apostolica concedimus ut idem Venerabilis Vincentius Pallotti, presbyter, Fundator Societatis Apostolati Catholici, Beati nomine in posterum nuncupetur, eiusque corpus et lipsana, seu reliquiae, pubblicae venerationi proponantur”.
 Cf. ACTASAC, I, 460-464.
 Cf. ibid, 464.
 Cf. ibid, 470.
 Cf. ibid, 472. Another new plaque was placed on the previous niche: VENERABILES. EXUVIAE. S. D. VINCENTII. PALLOTTI. FUND. SOC. APOST. CATHOLICI./ A. DIE. XXV. JAN. MDCCCL. AD. XXII. MAR. MCMVI. HEIC. SUB. TEMPLI. PAVIMENTO./ ET. A. DIE. X. APR MCMVI. AD. II. DEC. MCMXLIX. IN. LOCULO. HOC. LAPIDE. CONTECTO./ REQUIESCEBANT. HINC. DELATAE. SUB. ARA. MAXIMA. CONDITAE. SUNT./ DIE. XXII. JAN. AN. JUB. MCML. IN. EJUSDEM. VEN. SERVI. DEI. BEATIFICATIONE./; translation: The venerable remains of the priest Fr Vincent Pallotti, Founder of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate, which from January 25th 1850 to March 22nd 1906 lay here beneath the paving of this church and which from April 10th 1906 to December 2nd 1949 rested in this niche covered by a plaque, were translated on January 22nd of the Jubilee Year 1950 and placed under the high altar of this church, on the occasion of the beatification of the same Servant of God.
 “...his consciousness had diminished with signs of delirium, grave hyposystolia [of the heart] with considerable pallor and cooling of the extremities, a bradycardic pulse, […] and a cold sweat” Cfr. Proc. super primo miraculo Canonizationis, f. 33.
 ibid, f. 48. This is how Balzarani himself related it at the Process : “I suddenly had a sensation of freshness in my neck and chest and I woke up and realized I was no longer dying, because I could feel that my head was clear and I no longer had the sensation of discomfort I had experienced earlier. I told my wife who was beside me to remove the bandage they had put on my neck, because I felt well. […] In the evening I asked for food and I ate what was given to me with a good appetite. I slept all night long. ”
 Cf. Proc. super secundo miraculo Canonizationis, f. 64.
 Ibid, ff. 85: “...difficulty in keeping the heart going, which responded only artificially. Pulse almost imperceptible, irregular and very rapid” and ff. 86: “…disconnection between the pulse and the temperature, which is a sign of imminent death. The sick man became unconscious, he no longer felt anything if people touched him or if a treatment were applied; his hands and feet grew cold and became cyanotic, his body was in a cold sweat. The people nursing him expected him to die from one moment to the next” .
 Ibid, f. 66.
 Ibid, f. 86. Cf. also the Relazione sopra i due miracoli presentati ed approvati dalla Sacra Congregazione dei Riti per la Canonizzazione del Beato Vincenzo Pallotti, ACTASAC, V, 218-225.
 Cf. ACTASAC, V, 197-199 and 200-202.
 Cf. ibid, 204-205.
 Cf. ibid, 206.
 “...constare de duobus miraculis, Beato Vincentio Pallotti Confessore intercedente, scilicet del primo: instantanae perfectaeque sanationis agricolae Angeli Balzarani a pustula carbunculosa, et altero instantaneaeque perfectaeque sanationis Rev.mi P. Adalberti Turowski a gravissima syndrome toxi-infectiva”, translation: ‘the two miracles attributed to the intercession of Blessed Vincent Pallotti Confessor are certain, namely the first, the complete and instantaneous cure of the farmer Angelo Balzarini from a carbuncular pustule; and the second, the complete and instantaneous cure of the Most Reverend Fr Adalberto Turowski from a very serious toxic-infective syndrome”, ACTASAC, V, 214.
 Cf. ACTASAC, V,
 Cf. ACTASAC, V, 233 and 243-247.
 Cf. ibid, 277.
 Cf. ibid, 277-278.
 Traduzione: “… Beatum Vincentium Pallotti Sanctum esse decernimus, ac Sanctorum catalogo adscribimus: statuentes illius memoriam quolibet anno die eius natali vigesima seconda Januarii inter Sanctos Confessore pia devotione recoli debere. In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. Amen”, cf. ACTASAC, V, 360.
 Cf. ibid, 262.
 Cf. ibid, 276-277.
 Cf. ibid, 280.
 Cf. ibid, 280-281.
 Cf. ibid, 281.
 Cf. ibid, 281 and 282.
 Cf. ibid, 283-285.
 Ibid, 364.
 Cf. ibid, 369-370.
 Cf. ibid, 400-405.
 Cf. ibid, 408-411.
 “…Secondary and higher education had by then been completely secularized; ecclesiastical colleges and residential communities had been suppressed […] religion banned from lecture halls and history, the sciences and humanistic culture were tinged with secular and liberal prejudice […]; a large part of the Orders […] had been stripped of their assets, […] deprived of their functions and some had been forcibly dispersed; […] relations between the clergy and the laity were hindered and often prevented’ cfr. Spadolini G., L’opposizione cattolica da Porta Pia al ‘98, Firenze, 1961, 62, cited in Preziosi E., Obbedienti in piedi, la vicenda dell’Azione Cattolica in Italia, 4.
 “The immediate dissolution of all youth associations that do not report directly to the National Fascist Party and the National Ballila Movement’, cited in Preziosi E., Obbedienti in piedi, la vicenda dell’Azione Cattolica in Italia, op. cit., 168.
 Expression of Paul VI, cf. ibid, 174.
 Cf. ANALECTA, II, 227.
 Ibid, 226-227.
 Card. Pellegrinetti did not doubt calling the book «Pia Società dell’Apostolato Cattolico» of Pallotti «...a true Encyclopaedia of Catholic Action», cf. P. Ranocchini G. S.A.C., Vincenzo Pallotti Antesignano e collaboratore dell’Azione Cattolica, 23.
 Cf. ibid, 452-454.
 ACTASAC, V, 257-258.
 Ibid, 260.
 Ibid, 261.
 Cf. ibid, 262.
 Cf. ibid, 280.
 Cf. ibid, 264-265.
 Cf. ibid, 265.
 Cf. ibid, 266.
 Cf. ibid, 267.
 Ibid and cf. also 268.
 Ibid, 268.
 Ibid, 271.
 Ibid, 272.
 Ibid, 364.
 Ibid, 365.
 Ibid, 366.
 Ibid, 367.
 Ibid, 366.
 Cf. ibid, 369-370.
 Ibid, 369: “Hanc piam sacri ordinis virorum sodalitatem expedire visum est Caelitis praesidio obtegi, quo alacriores singuli ad christiani nominis propagationem studium conferrent et vel ampliores fructus spirituales colligerentur. Obversatur autem mentibus Sanctus Vincentius Pallotti, cui caelestes honores nuper decretavimus, quique in rem missionalem sollertissimas curas intendit ac validissime est annisus, ut fratres a Sedis Apostolicae communione sejuncti in unum Christi ovile redirent”.
 Ibid: “Itaque, certa scientia ac matura deliberatione Nostra deque Apostolicae potestatis plenitudine, harum Litterarum vi perpetuumque in modum Sanctum Vincentium Pallotti, Confessorem, Pontificiae Unionis Missionariae Cleri principalem apud Deum Patronum constituimus ac declaramus…”
 Cf. ibid, 400-405.
 Cf. ibid, 408-411.
 Ibid, 370.
 Ibid, 372.
 Cf. ibid, 370-372.
 Ibid, 374.
 Cf. ibid, 375
 Ibid, 376.
 Cf. ibid.
 Ibid, 372-374.
 Ibid, 376.
 Ibid, 374.
 Ibid, 377.
 Ibid, 377 and 378.
 During the course of his homily the Pope mentioned a foundation or work which was to be a source of new spiritual life: “I know that your Eminence and the Auxiliary Bishop have the intention to establish here an activity of this Society of the Catholic Apostolate which owes its origin to St. Vincent Pallotti, is this not true? ACTASAC V, 372). However nothing was done in Frascati, unless we can identify it with the Centro Spirituale S. Vincenzo Pallotti, which later was established in Grottaferrata, in the Diocese of Frascati.
 Cf. Decree of the PONTIFICIUM CONSILIUM PRO LAICIS, 1330/03/S-61/A-74, in General Statutes, Roma, 2003, 9-11.
 Taken from the homily preached by the President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, Mgr. St. Rylko, at the Basilica of S. Lorenzo in Damaso January 24th 2004; manuscript, General Secretariat of the UAC, p.2.
 Ibid, 3.